and Working Procedures
Under the Governmentís Policy
The Ministry of Education has laid down relevant policies and procedures within the framework of the governmentís policy which was stated in parliament on the twenty sixth of July 1995 concerning social and educational matters which encompass religion, art, culture and sports as follows:- 1. Policy on 9-year-compulsory education 1.1) In the year 1997, all children who have completed sixth grade shall be able to continue their education at the lower secondary level in any government school without having to pay educational fees; 1.2) Underprivileged learners will be provided with appropriate educational support such as school uniforms, textbooks on loan, school transportation, tran- sportation allowances, study grants and/or accommodation for the needy, the handicapped and for those whose houses are too far from school etc.; 1.3) Good quality resources will be adequately provided for schools to ensure maximum efficiency, be it teachers, buildings, materials and equipment or new technologies; 1.4) Local communities should be encouraged to participate in school administration while local resource persons are recruited as supplementary teachers with certain remuneration; 1.5) A 9-year-compulsory act is currently in the process of being drafted. 2. Policy on 12-year-compulsory education 2.1) School mapping and learning networks will be established in an attempt to mobilize educational resources; 2.2) By the year 1998, all children who have completed ninth grade shall be able to further their studies at the upper secondary level, both in the general and the vocation streams, in any government school with school fees exemption; 2.3) Vocational schools and institutions will be actively supported to expand their quantitative recruitment capacity at the vocational certificate level via the following measures:- provision of diversified learning programmes such as, the bilateral system, curriculum adjustment towards flexibility and diversity, establish-ment of networks linking various educational institutions in catchment areas; 2.4) Educational access will be expanded to enable the underprivileged, women, and the handicapped to enter any type of educational institution according to their potential and desire. For those handicapped, an extra service of learning aids and materials will be provided; 2.5) A 12-year-compulsory education act will be drafted. 3. Policy on pre-primary education 3.1) Child-rearing services for pre-school children will be expanded to cover all areas with an attempt to render equal opportunities to both rural and urban children; 3.2) Activities which stimulate all aspects of child development namely, physical, emotional, social, cognitive, will be promoted, while also taking into consideration local culture and various stages of childrenís growth; 3.3) Relevant policies and practices amongst jointly responsible agencies should be unified with a view to increasing the coverage of good quality services. Local communities and the private sector should also be encouraged to take part in this matter. 4. Policy on qualified personnel production in muchneeded professions 4.1) Vocational education in relation to professions which are currently in a great demand in the labour market should be rapidly expanded by way of joint investment with the private sector and entrepreneurs who need qualified employees in such fields. Many measures to be explored include: the bilateral system, personnel development, international co-operation with various educational institutions for technological transfer in needy disciplines, in-service training and skill development to keep employees abreast with the latest technology which is being utilized in the labour market. 4.2) Scientific and technological capacity of higher educational institutions should be raised in terms of production and development. Its qualitative and quantitative outcomes should adequately satisfy the countryís needs concerning social and economic development. Entrepreneurial co-operation, both within and outside, the country must be encouraged in order to attain international standards. 5. Policy on teaching/learning process 5.1) Curriculum development will be undertaken with special emphasis on laying foundations for the following:- language skills, mathematics, science, morality, ethics and democracy. The learner will be enabled to analyse and synthesize which will serve as a learning tool in the future; 5.2) The quality of education services should be raised to acceptable international standards; 5.3) Teaching / learning processes should be urgently modified to yield practical results by means of format development, teaching innovations and the setting-up of learning networks between formal and nonformal education; 5.4) Development must be undertaken on such matters as technology and teaching/learning materials, libraries and information centres of all kinds; 5.5) The testing and selecting systems will be reformed to ensure that accumulated educational achievement is more important than examinations. Admission by quota will also be increased at all levels; 5.6) Assessment mechanism is to be improved while educational standards are raised at every level; 5.7) A network of technical co-operation should be developed and promoted for technical devolution. 6. Policy on teacher production and development 6.1) The process of teacher production and inservice teacher development must be systematically reformed so as to establish an active network throughout the country. Top priority should be given to developing teachers in those subjects which encounter the problem of teacher shortages while upholding moral and ethical aspects at the same time; 6.2) Welfare and social benefits for teachers will be improved to boost their morale and strengthen their security. Local teaching profession organizations in various subjects should be developed, along with the development of Golden Jubilee Fund. Private investment should be mobilized in order to set up lowinterest loans in an attempt to raise the quality of teachers. 7. Policy on democracy development 7.1) Democratic culture must be instilled in the way of life of learners, youths and the public at large; 7.2) Teaching/learning activities should be structured towards democracy development in all schools; 7.3) The process of democracy should be applied to learnersí activities. 8. Policy on the roles of families, local communities and the private sector 8.1) Families must be encouraged to develop knowledge, skills and desirable attitudes for all of their members while families, local communities, charity organizations, the media as well as the private sector are supported to take part in educational management; 8.2) Local communities, together with the private sector must be encouraged to participate in educational administration in a manner which corresponds to individualsí needs, local development and national development; 8.3) Private investments in education must be promoted to lessen the Stateís burden through the following means:- low-interest loans from a revolving fund, educational coupons and deregulations. 9. Policy on religious and cultural promotion 9.1) People of all religions and faiths will be encouraged to gain insightful knowledge and values from their religious beliefs in order to apply them in everyday life; 9.2) Education for monks and learning networks should be developed whilereligious buildings serve as actual community centres; 9.3) Relevant acts relating to monks must be updated while a monk university act is drafted; 9.4) Ancient items and monuments of the nation must be preserved while local wisdom is promoted; 9.5) Resources from both the public and the private sectors, within and also outside the country, must be mobilized in order to preserve, promote, publicize and develop religious, artistic and cultural affairs; 9.6) Co-operation will be extended to international organizations in an attempt to place Thailand as a research and development centre for arts and culture in the Southeast Asian region; 10. Policy on sports for good health 10.1) Economical swimming pools will be built,and if an adequate amount of budget is available, stadiums, sport materials and equipment will also be provided in all areas; 10.2) Basic sports and exercise for good health should be extensively promoted via teaching/ learning process integration, recreational activities; 10.3) Coaches and sports persons must be developed according to international standards. Certain categories of Thai sports such as Thai boxing should be publicized until they are acceptable at the international level. 11. Policy on administration and devolution 11.1) Re-engineering of the administrative system must be conducted at all levels so that devolution in educational, religious and cultural management could be achieved. The Ministry of Educationís representatives at the provincial level will be able to determine their own educational policies, promote staffís career advancement and allocate their budget according to local needs. Local management will thus be streamlined for maximum efficiency; 11.2) Resources from both the public and the private sectors will be mobilized for maximum efficiency in educational, religious and cultural administration as well as community affairs.